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Interplay of the Mediterranean diet and genetic hypertension risk on blood pressure in European adolescents: Findings from the HELENA study

Articles   |   13 February 2024 Date   |  

Autores: Gloria Pérez‑Gimeno · Miguel Seral‑Cortes · Sergio Sabroso‑Lasa · Luis Mariano Esteban · Kurt Widhalm · Frederic Gottrand · Peter Stehle · Aline Meirhaeghe · Manon Muntaner · Anthony Kafatos · Angel Gutierrez · Yannis Manios · Costas A. Anastasiou · Marcela Gonzalez‑Gross · Christina Breidenassel · Laura Censi · Stefaan de Henauw · Idoia Labayen · Gloria Bueno‑Lozano · Azahara I. Rupérez · Luis A. Moreno.

Abstract: Early-life onset of high blood pressure is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. In adolescents, limited evidence exists regarding the association between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) and normal blood pressure (BP) levels, as well as its potential to modulate genetic predisposition to HTN. This study investigated the interaction between a MedDiet score and a recently developed HTN-genetic risk score (HTN-GRS) on blood pressure levels in a European adolescent cohort. The MedDiet score was derived from two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and ranged from 0 (indicating low adherence) to 9 (indicating high adherence). Multiple linear regression models, adjusted for covariates, were employed to examine the relationship between the MedDiet score and BP z-scores and to assess the interaction effects between the MedDiet score and HTN-GRS on BP z-scores. MedDiet score showed a negative association with z-systolic BP (SBP) (ß = −0.40, p < 0.001) and z-diastolic BP (DBP) (ß = −0.29, p = 0.001). Additionally, a significant interaction effect was identified between the MedDiet score and HTN-GRS on z-SBP (ß = 0.02, p < 0.001) and z-DBP (ß = 0.02, p < 0.001). The modulatory effect of the MedDiet was more pronounced in females than in males, and HTN-GRS exhibited a stronger influence on DBP than on SBP. 

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